For your convenience, this page lists all readings and articles referenced in each section of the Toolkit, plus a few additional ones, grouped by topic area. Each citation includes a description of the article. Click View all Citations to see all readings in each group.
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Borus JF. How to be a Good Mentor. In LW Roberts, ed.The Academic Medicine Handbook. New York: Springer; 2013.
This book chapter reviews the role and functions of the good mentor. It discusses the nine characteristics of a good mentor, who should and should not be a mentor, different types of mentors, issues in initiating and structuring the mentoring relationship, difficult mentoring relationships for the mentor, mentoring across difference, “dos and don’ts” for mentors, developing one’s mentoring abilities, the life course of mentorship, and rewards for the mentor.
Chandler DE, Kram, KE. Enlisting Others in Your Development as a Leader. In: Self‐Management and Leadership Development. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc; 2010: 336‐361.
This is an excellent article highlighting the role relationships play both in enhancing a person’s ability to lead and in accelerating a person’s leadership learning. The article starts with a case study of two individuals in a corporation who both have leadership potential but end up having very different leadership outcomes. It then describes a three‐phase process of “self‐managed leadership” in detail, with frequent use of examples drawn from the two individuals introduced in the case study. The three‐phase process focuses on i) self‐awareness of values, personal motivators, strengths/weaknesses, and assessment of “fit” within an organization; ii) “savvy” for nurturing relationships; and iii) creation of strategic developmental networks.
Detsky AS, Baerlocher MO. Academic Mentoring‐‐How to Give It and How to Get It. JAMA. 2007; 297(19): 2134‐6.
This article focuses on ways to foster effective academic mentoring relationships in medicine, with mentees at different stages in training and/or career development. The authors give suggestions to promote healthy communications on both sides, facilitate regular evaluations of the mentoring relationship, facilitate follow‐through, and deal with evolving roles, potential areas of conflict, and eventual separation.
Kram, KE, Higgins, MC. A New Approach to Mentoring. The Wall Street Journal. September 22, 2008.
This article highlights the need to move away from a single, one‐on‐one mentoring relationship towards the building of developmental networks to keep up with rapidly changing technology and to navigate the challenges of globalization, a multicultural work force, and team‐based decision making. The article also argues that better outcomes are achieved using developmental networks at the organizational as well as at the individual level. Different types of organizations are cited as fostering this approach, and concrete strategies are offered to help individuals build such networks.
Lee A, Dennis C, Campbell P. Nature’s Guide for Mentors. Nature. 2007; 447(7146): 791‐7.
This article reflects on what compromises a good mentor, with examples of just a few of the hundreds of quotes included in the nominations supporting the mentors for the Nature awards for creative mentoring in science. The attributes highlighted were based on the opinion of more than 350 scientists writing as nominated mentor or their nominated mentees. In addition to the very insightful quotes, there is a table on the last page that one can fill out to self‐assess how good a mentor you are.
Ragins BR, Kram KE. The Landscape of Mentoring in the 21st Century. In: The Handbook of Mentoring at Work: Theory, Research and Practice. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications; 2007: 659‐687.
This book chapter gives a broad overview of the current state of the literature regarding mentoring and priorities for future research. The chapter describes paradigm shifts in mentoring, such as a greater focus on the importance of developmental networks, an increasing recognition of the dyadic and reciprocal nature of mentoring, and a greater understanding of the factors that affect mentoring quality. The authors note a consistent call throughout the book for consideration of a wider range of mentoring research outcomes. There is also a discussion of the role of context, such as the role of organizations, diversity climate and norms, leadership, technology, and societal culture.
Sambunjak D, Marusic A. Mentoring: What’s in a Name? JAMA. 2009; 302(23): 2591‐2.
This brief commentary attempts to clarify some of the conceptual confusion regarding the definition of mentoring by describing the structural, interactional, and temporal characteristics of mentoring. Mentoring’s primary purpose is defined as the growth and development of mentees in multiple spheres, in the context of reciprocal (yet asymmetrical) dyadic relationships, which may involve one mentor or several within a developmental network. The authors make a distinction between mentoring and other relationships such as “peer mentoring” and “e‐mentoring.” They also take the position that formal assessment should never be part of a mentoring relationship due to potential conflict with the mentor’s role as supporter.
Zerzan JT, Hess R, Schur E, Phillips RS, Rigotti N. Making the Most of Mentors: a Guide for Mentees. Academic Medicine. 2009; 84(1): 140‐144.
This is a practical guide to mentees (at any stage from student through junior faculty) with the goal of maximizing the effectiveness of mentoring experiences and making mentors’ jobs easier. The guide applies the corporate concept of “managing up” to academic medical settings and gives advice to mentees through various phases of mentorship, from initiation through cultivation to separation, addressing potential challenges along the way.
Project – Related Mentoring
Paglis LL, Green SG, Bauer TN. Does Adviser Mentoring Add Value? A Longitudinal Study of
Mentoring and Doctoral Student Outcomes. Research in Higher Education. 2006; 47(4): 451‐476.
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of doctoral advisor mentoring on the research, productivity, career commitment, and self‐efficacy of entering Ph.D. students in the “hard” sciences. Of the 357 students who received initial surveys, the study focuses on the 130 who completed all surveys over the next 5 ½ years. Findings were adjusted for indicators of ability and attitudes at program entry. The study’s modest findings could not definitively determine whether adviser mentoring adds value, but are still considered more encouraging than previous findings.
Thorndyke LE, Gusic ME, Milner RJ. Functional Mentoring: a Practical Approach with Multilevel Outcomes. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 2008; 28(3): 157‐64.
The focus on of this study was the effects of functional mentoring, defined as the mentor‐mentee pairing for guidance on a defined project. The functional mentoring program studied was part of a 9‐month Penn State College of Medicine Junior Faculty Development Program (JFDP) and paralleled a year‐long curriculum in career development. Over 4 years of the mentoring program, there were 97 JFDP faculty graduates, and 68 faculty mentors, who were tracked for up to 5 years after program completion. While the long‐term effects could not be assessed within the study timeframe, the authors conclude that the mentoring program provided a positive mentoring experience across the institution.
Wiest JS. Mentoring for the Postdoctoral Fellow. Excerpted from The POSTDOCket, 2004
In this one‐page excerpt, a seasoned Ph.D. researcher gives advice to facilitate good mentoring experiences in the current postdoctoral training atmosphere. The excerpt describes the high level of mentor commitment required and the need for the mentor to see more potential in the trainee than the trainee sees in him or herself. There is also the caveat that those doing the most interesting science are often not the best mentors. Finally, specifics are given on in‐depth conversations that should happen in advance to test the interaction and mentoring relationship.
Mentoring Involving Peer Relationships
Bussey‐Jones J, Bernstein L, Higgins S, et al. Repaving the Road to Academic Success: the IMeRGE Approach to Peer Mentoring. Academic Medicine. 2006; 81(7): 674‐9.
This article describes the formation and organization of an innovative peer mentoring group, the Internal Medicine Research Group at Emory (IMeRGE). This group was partially born out of the mentoring needs of women and minority faculty and had a primary goal of fostering collaboration among junior faculty while simultaneously acquiring experience through advanced faculty development. IMeRGE included five women and two men from diverse cultural backgrounds who had been on faculty for up to five years. These faculty garnered the support of the division chief, and through a faculty instruction and development grant awarded to the division, they were able to compensate selected senior faculty advisors. The authors conclude that Levinson’s functions of mentoring were fully realized within this peer‐mentoring model.
Kram KE, Isabella LA. Mentoring Alternatives: the Role of Peer Relationships in Career
Development. Academy of Management Journal. 1985; 28(1): 110‐132.
The goal of this study was to understand the nature of peer relationships among managers and other professionals in one organizational setting. The study was conducted in a large northeastern manufacturing company, through biographical interviews of 15 focal individuals and the 25 individuals with whom they stated they had supportive relationships. The study identified different types of peer relationships, highlighted enhancing functions of these relationships, and described how these varied at different career stages.
Parker P, Hall DT, Kram KE. Peer Coaching: a Relational Process for Accelerated Career Learning. Academy of Management Learning & Education. 2008; 7(4): 487‐503.
In this article, peer coaching (distinguished from peer mentoring) is described as a tool that can accelerate career learning, based on the assumption that interaction with others is a critical resource for learning and thus career growth. To better understand what facilitates good peer‐coaching experiences, a survey was conducted of 209 fulltime MBA students 6 months after completion of courses in which peer coaching was used. The study’s main outcome of interest was identification of factors that would predict adoption of this new style of learning. Based on the modest results of the study, the authors offer a theoretic model of peer coaching, along with suggestions for future research.
Mentoring Guides at the Institutional Level
Community of Mentors: Guidelines for Mentors. Office of Faculty Development, Children’s
Hospital Boston. (25‐page guide). 2013.
Community of Mentors: Guidelines for Junior Faculty. Office of Faculty Development, Children’s Hospital Boston. (22‐page guide). 2013.
This is an excellent resource that complements the Boston Children’s Hospital faculty mentoring program. The “Community of Mentors” is set up as a three‐tier system of support (logistical information, skills building, and enabling committed personal and professional relationships). Each Guidelines document has very practical, easy‐to‐read sections on mentorship expectations, checklists, discussion topics, and follow‐up meetings. Moreover, beyond the dyadic model of mentoring, the Community of Mentors is defined as existing within a broader and equally important Developmental Network. The Office of Faculty Development, in a collaborative effort with other leaders at Boston Children’s Hospital, developed the “Community of Mentors” to give all junior faculty access to a mentor/mentor team.
Giving and Getting Career Advice: A Guide for Junior and Senior Research Faculty ‐ ADVANCE Program and the Office of the Vice President for Research, University of Michigan. p 1‐17, 2007 Nov.
This is another excellent resource guide that can be helpful not only for junior and senior research faculty, but for faculty who are not primarily research focused. The term “career advising” is used rather than mentoring to describe the kind of interactions that junior faculty need to have with more senior colleagues. There are very practical sections on “Common Issues for Junior and Senior Faculty,” tips for individuals at different positions (senior faculty, department chairs and unit directors, junior faculty), and questions one should be asked and/or be prepared to answer.
Olmstead MA. Mentoring New Faculty: Advice to Department Chairs. CSWP Gazette. 1993; 13(1):1.
This article provides practical suggestions to department chairs for effective mentoring of new faculty. The author, a faculty member at a major research university, had been mentored in the past by three department chairs, who were the first to actually implement her suggestions. The article focuses on ways to make promotion criteria clear, facilitate acquisition of resources to meet expectations, facilitate provision of frequent and accurate feedback, and minimize barriers to promotion.
Tsen LC, Borus JF, Nadelson CC, Seely EW, Haas A, Fuhlbrigge AL. The Development,
Implementation, and Assessment of an Innovative Mentoring Leadership Program for Faculty Mentors. Academic Medicine, December 2012.
Structuring the Mentoring Relationship
Barnes, B. How to Pick a Graduate Advisor. Neuron. 2013; 80; 275-279.
This editorial provides a guide for young scientists to help select the right graduate adviser, but may be applicable in a wider context. The author proposes the concept of an “M-index” the serves to measure mentoring quality.
Choosing a Mentor – PowerPoint by Carol Nadelson, MD
A 2009 slide deck of Dr. Nadelson’s talk about the different roles of mentors and the need for multiple mentors, the mentee’s self‐definition as necessary in choosing appropriate mentors, the mentor’s and the mentee’s responsibilities in the mentoring relationship, and what to do if this relationship doesn’t appear to be working.
4 partial references
Collins E. 360 Degree Mentoring. Harvard Management Update. 2008; Reprint No. U0803B.
This brief article suggests that one develop a network of mentors and seek mentorship from peers and subordinates, as well as those higher on the organizational chart, who might have specific areas of expertise that can help one succeed. The author suggests that mentoring relationships can be reciprocal and that mentee‐mentor pairs should define specific goals and expectations of their relationship and periodically discuss whether these are being met.
Straus SE, Chatur F, Taylor M. Issues in the Mentor‐Mentee Relationship in Academic Medicine: A Qualitative Study. Academic Medicine. 2009; 84:135‐139.
A report of a semi‐structured interview study of 21 Canadian junior faculty physician scientists, all government‐funded to spend 75% time on clinical or population science research, and a sample of 7 of their research mentors. The paper describes the experience of mentorship, the differences between being assigned a mentor versus selfidentifying a mentor, the many roles of a mentor, characteristics of good mentoring, barriers to mentorship, and possible mentorship strategies. It concludes by suggesting the development of a mentorship training initiative for mentors and mentees.
What is a Mentor? In: Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997: 1‐15.
This is a very practical, easy‐to‐read overview of mentoring and how to be a good
mentor. While the value of individual mentoring relationships is described, it is also
noted that effective mentoring may sometimes happen best in the context of working inmentoring teams and coordinating mentoring activities. Other highlights include a fewbrief cases provoking thought on issues that can affect the mentoring experience, a discussion of issues that can arise when mentors and students are from different backgrounds, and bulleted lists of how one should be a good mentor and tips for new mentors.
Life Course of Mentoring – Transitions
Holmes DR, Hodgson PK, Simari RD, Nishimura RA. Mentoring: Making the Transition from Mentee to Mentor. Circulation. 2010; 121: 336‐340.
A more general discussion of mentoring than its subtitle suggests, this article describes elements of mentoring, steps in the development of mentors, successful mentoring, mentoring styles, becoming a mentor, matching mentors and mentees, and the transition from mentee to colleague, the latter being the only part focused (briefly) on the transition from mentee to mentor.
HMS Authorship Guidelines. Faculty Polices on the Integrity of Science, Office for Professional Standards and Integrity, Harvard Medical School. December 17, 1999.
These Harvard Medical School guidelines define who should and should not be listed as an author on a publication, the responsibilities for substantial contribution required of every author, the appropriate order of author listing, responsibilities in handling authorship disputes, and ways to implement this policy.
Mentoring Across Differences
Gersick CJG, Kram, KE. High‐achieving Women at Midlife. Journal of Management Inquiry. 2002;11:104‐127.
A qualitative study based on in‐depth personal interviews in 1996‐97 focused on understanding the developmental path and life structures of women executives with 10 mid‐life (35‐55) women executives at a large NYC financial firm. Using Daniel Levinson’s model of development, the paper describes the women’s developmental efforts to find a life role in their 20s, manage career‐family trade‐offs in their 30s and 40s, and come into their own in their careers and personal life in their 50s and beyond. This paper is not about the mentoring process per se, but can be helpful to faculty mentors working with professional women as they find ways to integrate the different aspects of their lives at different stages in their careers.
Ibarra H, Carter NM, Silva C. Why Men Still Get More Promotions than Women. Harvard Business Review. September 2010; Reprint R1009F: 1‐6.
A report of the findings of a survey of 4000 high‐potential employees in multi‐national firms and interviews of 40 such employees from a single firm to explore the mentoring received by male and female employees. The study found that more women than men reported having mentors, but that over a two‐year period more men were promoted to higher‐level positions. The article distinguishes between mentoring and sponsorship, with the former focusing on feedback and advice to the employee and the latter on strong advocacy within the firm for the employee, and reports that men were more likely than women to have such sponsors. It recommends corporate sponsorship programs for women if firms are to realize the potential of, and retain, high‐functioning women employees.
Howell LP, Servis G, Bohnam A. Multigenerational Challenges in Academic Medicine: UCDavis’s Responses. Academic Medicine. 2005; 80: 527‐532.
Avery helpful article translating the different generational expectations and values mentioned by McNulty to the issues of the multigenerational work setting of the academic medical center.
McNulty EJ. Can You Manage Different Generations? Harvard Business School Working
Knowledge for Business Leaders, Reprinted from: “It’s Time to Rethink What You Think You Know About Managing People.” Harvard Management Update. February 2006; 11.
A brief piece on the different feelings about work and needs from the workplace of workers under 35, between 35 and 54, and 55 and older. The author suggests that managers be aware of each cohort’s different values and expectations to engage and retain talented workers. Take‐home points include the need to think about skills and expectations, tailor one’s management approach to workers in different cohorts, and facilitate mentoring to provide continued opportunities for middle‐aged and older workers while promoting the transfer of important knowledge to younger workers.
One reference, the larger article from which this is taken.
Meister JC, Willyerd K. Mentoring Millennials. Harvard Business Review. May 2010; Reprint R1005D; 1‐4.
This brief 2010 Harvard Business Review article characterizes millennials, the generation born 1977‐97, as wanting jobs that fulfill them; are an integral part of their lives; allow them opportunities to collaborate, make new friends, and learn new skills; and connect them to a larger social purpose. Millennials are academic overachievers who are committed to community service, and if they are engaged will work hard to overachieve at the job. The authors discuss the challenge of mentoring the large number of millennials now in the workplace (and an increasingly large part of the academic medicine workforce), who want frequent direct feedback to measure their success, and three types of innovative solutions are described: 1) reverse mentoring (in which senior managers and millennials are matched, with each having responsibility for teaching the other), 2) group mentoring (by more experienced leaders or peer‐to‐peer learning groups), and 3) anonymous mentoring (via computer from a distant mentor outside the company).
Blake‐Beard S, Murrell A, Thomas D. Unfinished Business: The Impact of Race on Understanding Mentoring Relationships. Harvard Business School working paper, 2006.
An interesting review of research on the interactions of race with various types of mentoring that outlines areas in need of further research. The paper reports that minorities have greater difficulty gaining access to any type of mentoring and that available mentors are usually white males, which can introduce interracial dynamics into the mentoring relationship. The article suggests that people of color develop two complementary mentoring networks, the first with whites (who provide access to resources and opportunities) and the second to people of color (who provide psychosocial and emotional support).
117 references, 1 figure
Ely RJ, Meyerson DE, Davidson MN. Rethinking Political Correctness. Harvard Business Review. 2006;84: 78‐87
This helpful article suggests that although political correctness has helped create more inclusive workplaces, it has also fostered tiptoeing around issues, breeding misunderstanding, conflict, and mistrust, and eroding productivity. This has created barriers to the direct, honest communication and feedback necessary for constructive collaboration. The article provides five “Principles for Constructively Engaging Differences,” which include resisting the urge to cast blame or feel defensive, asking questions to better understand others’ behavior, openly sharing your own perspective, questioning your own desire to be proven right about a perceived threat, seeking input from advisers who challenge your viewpoint, and asking yourself what changes you can make to improve workplace relationships.
No references, two related readings
Thomas, DA. The Truth About Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters. Harvard Business Review. 2001; 79: 98‐107.
Based on a study in three major corporations of minority and white executives and middle managers, Thomas distinguishes the career trajectories of minority executives from those of their white counterparts. Although high‐potential minority executives receive slower initial promotions than whites, those who eventually achieve executive positions have strengthened their skill base, developed a wide and diverse network of mentors, and gained confidence, competence, and credibility in the organization. The author discusses challenges in cross‐racial mentoring and suggests that they can be surmounted by development of a trusting mentor‐mentee relationships in which 1) the mentor and mentee can openly discuss racial issues, sensitivities, and realities; 2) the mentor can identify with the mentee and teach, advocate, and provide opportunities for the mentee; and 3) the mentor can help the mentee identify and link to other helpful mentors in the organization.
No references, one related article is summarized.
Effective Feedback and Difficult Conversations
Bonetta L. Writing a Letter of Recommendation. Addendum to Making the Right Moves: A
Practical Guide to Scientific Management for Postdocs and New Faculty. Second edition.
Burroughs Wellcome Fund‐Howard Hughes Medical Institute; 2006: 1‐17.
This helpful paper provides “tips” for mentors about the dos and don’ts of writing letters of recommendation for postdocs and junior faculty. Two sample letters demonstrate the importance of specific wording in determining what the letter conveys to the reader.
Ende J. Feedback in Clinical Medical Education. JAMA. 1983; 250: 777‐781.
A classic paper on the necessity of giving feedback to trainees in clinical medicine, the barriers to doing so, and guidelines. The guidelines suggest that feedback: 1) be part of the relationship between the teacher and trainee; 2) be well timed and expected; 3) be based on first‐hand data; 4) be regulated in quantity and limited to remediable behaviors; 5) be phrased in descriptive, non‐evaluative terms; 6) deal with specific performance, not generalizations; 7) include subjective data labeled as such; and 8) deal with decisions and actions, rather than assumed intentions or interpretations.
Gigante J, Dell M, Sharkey, A. Getting Beyond “good job”: How to Give Effective Feedback.
Pediatrics. 2011; 127: 205‐207.
This paper provides a five‐step framework for giving formal feedback to learners in the pediatric setting: 1) outlining the expectations for the learner at the start of the learning experience, 2) preparing the learner to receive feedback, 3) encouraging self assessment by asking the learners how they think they are performing, 4) telling the learner how you think they are doing based on specific observed actions and changeable behaviors, and 5) developing a plan for improvement.
Feedback: A Crucial Component of Professional Interactions – PowerPoint by Jo Shapiro, MD
This slide deck of Dr. Shapiro’s talk focuses on the necessity of providing and receiving direct feedback about professional behavior in the medical setting.
Thomas JD, Arnold RM. Giving Feedback. Journal of Palliative Medicine. 2011;14: 233‐239
This recent paper by two palliative care physicians reviews educators’ and learners’ attitudes towards feedback, builds on Ende’s guidelines to provide a helpful algorithm for giving feedback, and describes parallels between giving feedback and breaking bad news. The latter emphasizes the importance of titrating the amount of information provided so that it can be integrated, attending to the resultant affect, and making a follow‐up plan for next steps.
Files JA, Blair JE, Mayer AP, Ko MG. Facilitated Peer Mentorship: A Pilot Program for Academic Advancement of Female Medical Faculty. Journal of Women’s Health. 2008; 17: 1009‐1015.
This paper reports the experience of a pilot program at the Mayo Clinic Scottsdale in which four instructors, all Women’s Health internists, participated in a year‐long, senior faculty–facilitated, peer mentoring program primarily focused on learning how to produce a scholarly manuscript. Generalization of the reported positive results is limited by the small size and pilot nature of the program.
Feldman MD, Huang L, Guglielmo BJ, et al. Training the Next Generation of Research Mentors: The University of California, San Francisco, Clinical & Translational Science Institute Mentor Development Program. CTS. 2009; 2: 216‐221.
This paper describes the first two cohorts of a program for mid‐level to senior‐level clinical and translational research faculty to improve their skills as lead mentors for the postdocs and junior faculty on their research team. Utilizing the resources of the campus‐wide UCSF Mentor Development Program, a curriculum was developed with sessions devoted to defining mentorship, rewards and challenges of mentoring, communicating effectively with mentees, balancing work and life, understanding diversity among mentees, understanding academic advancement policies, understanding economic and fiscal realities for successful academic careers, leadership skills and opportunities in building a successful research team, understanding intramural and extramural grants, and navigating the IRB and the UCSF grant application process. The 26 participants who completed the program in its first two years reported feeling that it had helped them to become better research mentors, increased their confidence in their mentoring skills, and increased their understanding of important mentoring issues at UCSF.
Pololi LH, Knight SM, Dennis K, Frankel RM. Helping Medical School Faculty Realize Their Dreams: An Innovative Collaborative Mentoring Program. Academic Medicine. 2002; 77: 377‐384.
This paper describes a facilitated collaborative (meaning peer) mentoring program for assistant professors at the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University. Two cohorts, each with nine participants from across the medical school’s departments, took part in an 80‐hour, eight‐month‐long program focused on the development of skills in key areas of academic medicine career development, a structured values‐based approach to career planning, and instruction on scholarly writing. Participants positively evaluated the program for helping them identify their core values, develop a career plan based on those values, develop close collaborative relations with others, develop skills in understanding and dealing with gender and power areas, negotiation and conflict management, improve their scholarly writing and presentations, and reinforce their desire to stay in academic medicine. The peer learning was facilitated by a senior medical school official and various content experts over the course of the program.
Suggested Books on Mentoring
Dutton, J. Energize Your Workplace: How to Create and Sustain High Quality Connections at
Work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass; 2003.
Johnson, B, Ridley, C. The Elements of Mentoring. 2nd Ed. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan; 2008.
Ragins BR, Kram KE. The Handbook of Mentoring at Work: Theory, Research and Practice. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications; 2007.
Roberts, LW (Ed). Achievement and Fulfillment in Academic Medicine: A Comprehensive Guide. New York: Springer Science, 2013.
Zachary, L. The Mentor’s Guide: Facilitating Effective Learning Relationships. San Francisco, CA:Jossey‐Bass; 2000.
Zachary, L. Creating a Mentoring Culture: The Organization’s Guide. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass; 2005.